HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. If left untreated, HIV can lead to the disease AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).
Unlike some other viruses, the human body can’t get rid of HIV completely. So once you have HIV, you have it for life.
HIV attacks the body’s immune system, specifically the CD4 cells (T cells), which help the immune system fight off infections. If left untreated, HIV reduces the number of CD4 cells (T cells) in the body, making the person more likely to get infections or infection-related cancers. Over time, HIV can destroy so many of these cells that the body can’t fight off infections and disease. These opportunistic infections or cancers take advantage of a very weak immune system and signal that the person has AIDS, the last state of HIV infection.
No effective cure for HIV currently exists, but with proper treatment and medical care, HIV can be controlled. The medicine used to treat HIV is called antiretroviral therapy or ART. If taken the right way, every day, this medicine can dramatically prolong the lives of many people with HIV, keep them healthy, and greatly lower their chance of transmitting the virus to others. Today, a person who is diagnosed with HIV, treated before the disease is far advanced, and stays on treatment can live a nearly as long as someone who does not have HIV.
The only way to know for sure if you have HIV is to get tested. Testing is relatively simple. You can ask your health care provider for an HIV test. Many medical clinics, substance abuse programs, community health centers, and hospitals offer them too. You can also buy a home testing kit at a pharmacy or online.
Hepatitis C is a contamination that for the most part influences the liver. The hepatitis C infection (HCV) causes this sickness. Frequently, a man with Hepatitis C does not have any indications (medical issues or signs that he has the ailment). In any case, ceaseless contamination can scar the liver. Numerous years of disease may bring about cirrhosis. Infrequently, individuals with cirrhosis additionally have liver disappointment or liver tumor. They can likewise have extremely swollen veins of the throat and stomach. The blood misfortune from this issue can execute.
Hepatitis C is typically spread by blood-to-blood contact (when blood from a man with Hepatitis C contacts (touches or gets into) someone else's circulatory system). The most well-known ways this happens are through intravenous medication utilize (when a man shoots drugs into one of their veins, with a needle that was at that point utilized by a man contaminated with Hepatitis C); nonsterile restorative hardware (therapeutic devices that were not cleaned all around ok in the wake of being utilized on a tainted individual); and blood transfusions (when a man is given blood that originated from a contaminated individual)
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body. Not all tumors are cancerous; benign tumors do not spread to other parts of the body. Possible signs and symptoms include a lump, abnormal bleeding, prolonged cough, unexplained weight loss and a change in bowel movements. While these symptoms may indicate cancer, they may have other causes. Over 100 cancers affect humans.
Tobacco use is the cause of about 22% of cancer deaths. Another 10% is due to obesity, poor diet, lack of physical activity and drinking alcohol. Other factors include certain infections, exposure to ionizing radiation and environmental pollutants. In the developing world nearly 20% of cancers are due to infections such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human papillomavirus (HPV). These factors act, at least partly, by changing the genes of a cell. Typically many genetic changes are required before cancer develops. Approximately 5–10% of cancers are due to inherited genetic defects from a person's parents. Cancer can be detected by certain signs and symptoms or screening tests. It is then typically further investigated by medical imaging and confirmed by biopsy.
Many cancers can be prevented by not smoking, maintaining a healthy weight, not drinking too much alcohol, eating plenty of vegetables, fruits and whole grains, vaccination against certain infectious diseases, not eating too much processed and red meat, and avoiding too much sunlight exposure.
Hepatitis B is a potentially life-threatening liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. It is a major global health problem. It can cause chronic infection and puts people at high risk of death from cirrhosis and liver cancer.
A vaccine against hepatitis B has been available since 1982. The vaccine is 95% effective in preventing infection and the development of chronic disease and liver cancer due to hepatitis B.
The hepatitis B virus can survive outside the body for at least 7 days. During this time, the virus can still cause infection if it enters the body of a person who is not protected by the vaccine. The incubation period of the hepatitis B virus is 75 days on average, but can vary from 30 to 180 days. The virus may be detected within 30 to 60 days after infection and can persist and develop into chronic hepatitis B.
In highly endemic areas, hepatitis B is most commonly spread from mother to child at birth (perinatal transmission), or through horizontal transmission (exposure to infected blood), especially from an infected child to an uninfected child during the first 5 years of life. The development of chronic infection is very common in infants infected from their mothers or before the age of 5 years.
Virology is the study of viruses and virus-like agents, including (but not limited to) their taxonomy, disease-producing properties, cultivation and genetics. It is often considered a part of microbiology or pathology. In the early years this discipline was dependent upon advances in the chemical and physical sciences, but viruses soon became tools for probing basic biochemical processes of cells.
Viruses have traditionally been viewed in a rather negative context as agents responsible for disease that must be controlled or eliminated. However, viruses also have certain beneficial properties that can be exploited for useful purposes (for example in gene therapy or vaccinology)
Immunosuppressant drugs are a class of drugs that suppress, or reduce, the strength of the body’s immune system. Some of these drugs are used to make the body less likely to reject a transplanted organ, such as a liver, heart, or kidney. These drugs are called anti-rejection drugs. Other immunosuppressant drugs are often used to treat autoimmune disorders such as lupus, psoriasis, and rheumatoid arthritis.
If your doctor has prescribed an immunosuppressant medication for you, here’s what to know about what these drugs do, how they work, and how they might make you feel. The following information will tell you what to expect when taking an immunosuppressant drug and what it could do for you.
The Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology hosts 30 faculty members dedicated to clinical practice, research and education. Our division trains 15 fellows at a steady state, 4 of whom are funded by NIH research training grants. We are NIH funded to train clinical psychology students to specialize in the psychosocial aspects of digestive disorders and the brain-gut connection.
With approximately $4 million in sponsored research and a rapidly growing portfolio, the Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology investigates esophageal and motility disorders including achalasia, dysphagia and GERD, as well as areas of interventional GI and pancreatobiliary diseases, quality improvement, and psychosocial GI. We also host several industry-sponsored clinical trials, especially in the areas of Hepatitis C, NASH, eosinophilic esophagitis and inflammatory bowel diseases.
In addition to general GI and Hepatology care, Divison faculty offer specialty, multidisciplinary care in the areas of achalasia, bariatrics, eosinophilic esophagitis, scleroderma, defecatory disorders, NASH, liver transplant, nutrition and health psychology. Through Northwestern Medicine facilities, division faculty deliver approximately 14,000 annual patient visits.
Emtricitabine (FTC), with trade name Emtriva (formerly Coviracil), is a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) for the treatment of HIV infection in adults and children.
Emtricitabine is also marketed in a fixed-dose combination with tenofovir (Viread) under the brand name Truvada.
A fixed-dose triple combination of emtricitabine, tenofovir and efavirenz (Sustiva, marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb) was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) on July 12, 2006 under the brand name Atripla.
Emtricitabine makes up one fourth of the Quad pill (brand name: Stribild).
It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, a list of the most important medication needed in a basic health system.
There are several different antifungal preparations that are used to treat various fungal infections. They come as creams, sprays, solutions, shampoos, medicines to take by mouth, and injections. The length of treatment depends on what type of fungal infection you have, how severe it is and if you have any other health problems - for example, problems with your immune system. Some courses of treatment can be as short as a few days (for example, for vaginal thrush). Other courses can be as long as eight weeks (for example, for ringworm infection of the scalp).
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